Why do we have to clean our teeth?

Tartar (calculus) are deposits that have built up on the teeth over time. Dental cleanings involve removing plaque (soft, sticky, bacteria infested film) and tartar (calculus) deposits that have built up on the teeth over time. Your teeth are continually bathed in saliva which contains calcium and other substances which help strengthen and protect the teeth. While this is a good thing, it also means that we tend to get a build-up of calcium deposits on the teeth. This chalky substance will eventually build up over time. Usually it is tooth coloured and can easily be mistaken as part of the teeth, but it also can vary from brown to black in colour.

If the calculus (or tartar, as dentists like to call it) is allowed to accumulate on the teeth it will unfortunately provide the right conditions for bacteria to thrive next to the gums. The purpose of the scaling and polishing is basically to leave the surfaces of the teeth clean and smooth so that bacteria are unable to stick to them and you have a better chance of keeping the teeth clean during your regular home care. Also it leaves your teeth feeling lovely and smooth and clean, which is nice when you run your tongue around them.

10 Reason why you need to have Dental Cleaning

How are dental cleanings done?

Dental surgeon or dental hygienist uses specialized instruments to gently remove these deposits without harming the teeth.

 

1) Ultrasonic instrument (Scaler)

Ultrasonic Scaling

Commonly used first is an ultrasonic instrument or scaler unit which uses tickling vibrations to knock larger pieces of tartar loose. It also sprays a cooling mist of water while it works to wash away debris and keep the area at a proper temperature. The device typically emits a humming or high pitched whistling sound. This may seem louder than it actually is because the sound may get amplified inside your head, just like when you put an electric toothbrush into your mouth.

The ultrasonic instrument tips are curved and rounded and are always kept in motion around the teeth. They are by no means sharp since their purpose is to knock tartar loose and not to cut into the teeth. It is best to inform the operator if the sensations are too strong or ticklish so that they can adjust the setting appropriately on the device or modify the pressure applied.

With larger deposits that have hardened on, it can take some time to remove these, just like trying to remove baked-on grime on a stove that has been left over a long time. So your cleaning may take longer than future cleanings. Imagine not cleaning a house for six months versus cleaning it every week. The six-month job is going to take longer than doing smaller weekly jobs.

Video: Ultrasonic Scaling


2) Air polishing

After the dentist has done scaling using the ultrasonic scaler, he will proceed with polishing either using air polishing or polishing cup. Air polishing is an alternative more advance method  than the polishing cup and paste method. It requires a special ultrasonic unit (e.g. Air Flow from EMS) that allows use of this insert in the handpiece.

EMS Air polishing unit

EMS Air polishing unit

Air polishing uses medical-grade sodium bicarbonate and water in a jet of compressed air to “sandblast” the surface of the enamel leaving your teeth smooth and clean.

Indications for air polishing

  • Heavily smoking stain on the teeth
  • Staining due to coffee or tea
  • To remove fine tartar that are still attached to the teeth surface after scaling

Tobacco and coffee stain

 

Video: Air polishing method with EMS Air Flow®

Advantages of using air polishing

  • There is no physical contact with the tooth, therefore thermal injury is of no concern.
  • It is ideally suited for teeth separated by wide diastemata and considerable in shape and size.
  • Particularly good for cats where teeth are so small that standard cups can create gingival damage.
  • They are very efficient at removing stains from teeth.

 

Is scaling & air polishing going to be painful?

Most people find that cleanings are painless, and find the sensations described above – tickling vibrations, the cooling mist of water, and the feeling of pressure during “scraping” – do not cause discomfort. A lot of people even report that they enjoy cleanings and the lovely smooth feel of their teeth afterwards! There may be odd zingy sensations, but many people don’t mind as they only last a nanosecond.

Be sure to let your dentist/hygienist know if you find things are getting too uncomfortable for your liking. They can recommend various options to make the cleaning more enjoyable.

Painful cleaning experiences can be caused by a number of things: a rough dentist or hygienist, exposed dentine (not dangerous, but can make cleanings unpleasant), or sore gum tissues.

In case you may have had painful cleaning experiences in the past, switching to a gentle hygienist/dentist and perhaps a spot of nitrous oxide can often make all the difference. You could also choose to be numbed. If you find the scaling a bit uncomfortable because the gum tissues (rather than the teeth themselves) are sensitive, topical numbing gels can be used.

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